## Tips and Concept to solve Reasoning Question in Competitive Exams

### (Basics Things to Remember )

Content:
(i) Introduction
(ii) What is coding?
(iii) What is Decoding?
(iv) Types of Coding
(v) Important Concepts & Tricks

Coding and Decoding forms a dedicated part of the reasoning sections in various competitive exams. The level of questions are differs in all exams. In SSC, the questions are medium while in SBI or IBPS exams, the questions are difficult to solve. Here are the some Important concepts and Tricks on coding which are used most commonly in competitive exams. Let us first know the definitions-

What is coding?
It is the process of converting a piece of information into another form of representation through signals. Hence, it is the sending a data from one person to another person in such a way that only sender and receiver can understand its meaning without understanding by a third person.

What is decoding?
The encoding of a message is the production of the message. It is a system of coded meanings, and in order to create that, the sender need to understand how the world is comprehensible to the members of the audience. The decoding of a message is how an audience member is able to understand, and interpret the message. Hence, decoding is the process of converting the coded data back into original form by applying the process of coding, but in reverse process.
Usually these type of coding-decoding questions are given in competitive exams-
(a)    Rearrangement of letters
(b)   Replacement of letters
(c)    Symbol coding
(d)   Number coding
(e)   Word replacement or substitution
(f)     Language coding
To get example of each type click here. Competitive Exams - Reasoning Questions

Concepts and Tricks to be remember:

1.  It is necessary to remember the position of all the alphabetical letters both in forward and backward order.
It is difficult to remember the backward order of alphabetical letters. If you know the forward order than you can calculate easily the backward order. Here is how-
Backward position  = 27 – forward position of that letter
Example : C = 27 – 3 = 24 ( backward position )

2.  Try to remember the opposite letters i.e, backward  position of letters corresponding to forward position. Example-
(i) A – Z            (ii) B – Y              (iii) C – X
(iv) D – W         (v) E – V             (vi) F – U
(vii) G – T         (viii) H – S         (ix) I – R
(x) J – Q            (xi) K – P           (xii)  L – O
(xiii) M – N
The position of Opposite position of any letter can be found using above equation.
Opposite position of any letter=27-position-position on that letter
Example: D = 27 – 4 = 23 = W
Hence, opposite of D is W.

Note1: To remember the pair of opposite letters try to make a word using these two letters.
e.g.  G – T = GoaT
L – O = Love etc.

Note2: Sum of two opposite ( opposite pair ) letter is equal to 27.